O-Level Chemistry Video: How to Measure the Rate of Chemical Reactions


Chemical reactions occur at different rates. We need to know and have the ability to control the rate of chemical reactions in our daily life. We want some reactions to proceed faster (industrial processes to produce products in a short time) while others to proceed slower (slow down the process of rusting of steel and iron objects).

For Chemistry students, we learnt that a chemical reaction is a process in which the reactant changes into the product. By rate of reaction, we mean how quickly a reactant is used up or how quickly a product is being formed. It is important that we are able to measure the rate of reaction of any chemical reactions accurately.

There are essentially two main ways of investigating the rate of chemical reactions:

  1. Measure the time take for a reaction to be completed
  2. Measure changes that occur over a period of time during a reaction (more common in chemistry examinations)

In the video below, you will learn:

  • how to determine the rate of reaction by measuring the changes (i.e. volume of gas as well as mass of reaction mixture) that occur over a period of time during a reaction
  • how to draw a rate graph and describe the shape

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Direct link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TL5SO0lbdMM

 

I hope you find the content easy for your understanding and if you have any questions, leave me a comment below.

Feel free to share this video with your friends who needs help in mastering Chemistry.

PS: In the next blog post, i will be sharing with you on the factors that will affect the rate of chemical reactions. Stay tuned!

Meanwhile, you can do a search on the top right hand corner for more discussions and questions on “Rate of Reactions”.

O-Level Chemistry Video: Types of Chemical Bonding


Chemical Bonding is one of the most important topic in Chemistry. In my opinion, students must have a good grasp of this topic in order to perform well in their examinations. This is because almost all other topics in Chemistry will be inter-related back to this fundamental topic.

The reasons given by students who do not score well for this particular topic are usually the following:

  • they are confused by the different types of bonding and the particles & forces of attraction involved
  • they understand the concepts but did not give the correct keywords in exam
  • they are unable to apply the basic concepts to solve application type of questions

Today, i will be sharing with you a video on the 3 Types of Chemical Bonding which are:

  1. Ionic Bonding which results when electrons are transferred from one atom to another, forming positive and negative ions.
  2. Covalent Bonding which results when atoms are joined together by sharing electrons, forming molecules.
  3. Metallic Bonding which is found only in metals.

Through the video, you will know the difference between the 3 Types of Bonding and the keywords associated with it. You will also learn the Types of Structures formed from their respective bonds and the Physical Properties of these structures.

Download Chemical Bonding Summary here

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Direct link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RX3bR4_d3EE

I hope you find the content easy for your understanding and if you have any questions, leave me a comment below.

Feel free to share this video with your friends who needs help in mastering Chemistry.

PS: Under related articles below, there are several blog post discussions and questions related to Chemical Bonding. You can also do a keyword search using the sidebar at the top right hand corner.

O-Level Chemistry Video: Group VII Trends in The Periodic Table


The topic on The Periodic Table is a very important topic in GCE O-Level Chemistry examinations. Besides the general characteristics and trends of The Periodic Table, students are required to know the properties of elements in Group I, Group VII, Group 0 as well as the Transition Metals.

Today, we will take a look at the properties of Group VII elements which are also known as the Halogens.

  • Exists as non-metals
  • Exists as diatomic molecules i.e. F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
  • Low MP & BP
  • Coloured
  • Undergoes Halogen Displacement Reaction (a redox reaction)
  • Strong oxidising agents

In the examination, you will also be asked to describe how the physical properties and chemical properties of halogens change going down the group.

Let’s take a look at a video on the Trends in Group VII Halogens of The Periodic Table and how the concept is being tested in examination.

Download Trends in Group VII Halogens of The Periodic Table Summary here. 

I hope you find the content easy for your understanding and if you have any questions, leave me a comment below.

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Direct link: https://youtu.be/trMsivt9wsY