O Level Chemistry: Particulate Nature of Matter / Kinetic Particle Theory 2


Solids Liquids Gases

(Photo Courtesy Loupe Clean)

In the previous post, i have discussed on the overview checklist that students need to know about this topic of Particulate Nature of Matter (commonly known as Kinetic Particle Theory).

Besides the “connection between relative molecular mass of a gas & its rate of diffusion” which is listed as very important, students should also know how to describe & differentiate the 3 States of Matter: Solids, Liquids & Gases, with respect to:

  1. Arrangement of the particles
  2. Forces between the particles
  3. Movement of the particles
  4. Energy of the particles
  5. Density

Let’s take a look at it now.

Comparison

Solids

Liquids

Gases

Arrangement of particles Closely packed together in an orderly arrangement Close together in a disorderly arrangement Far apart in a random arrangement
Forces between particles Strong forces Strong forces No forces
Movement of particles Vibrates about their fixed positions Slide past each other randomly Move about quickly & randomly
Energy of particles Low Moderate High
Density High (bcos particles are close together) Quite high (bcos particles are close together) Low (bcos particles are far apart)

With the above comparisons, we shall now discuss which States of Matter can be compressed upon the application of pressure  Рsomething that we learn from parents and junior schools when we are young.

Solids - Not compressible

Reason: Particles are closely packed together and no empty spaces for particles to move in

Liquids - Not compressible

Reason: Particles are closely packed together and no empty spaces for particles to move in

Gases - Compressible

Reason: Particles are very far apart from each other and they are alot of empty spaces for particles to move in, upon the application of any kind of pressure

Hope you have learned something here! I would love to hear from you on how find it. =)

Now, it’s time for you to try out some Chemistry exam-based questions.

Quick Check 1:

Which of them has a fixed volume? Solids, Liquids or Gases? Explain your choices with respect to how their particles are being arranged. (2 marks)

&

Quick Check 2:

Many of Singapore homes as well as eateries and coffee shops are having cylinders in their premises known as LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas).

Suggest why large amounts of butane gas, used for cooking, are stored in liquid in cylinders. (1 mark)

PS: You can write your suggested answer below in the Comments Section. We will get back to you soon with our suggested answers.

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10 Responses to O Level Chemistry: Particulate Nature of Matter / Kinetic Particle Theory 2
  1. Kerk Yan Juin
    February 7, 2010 | 3:38 pm

    Quick Check 1:

    Which of them has a fixed volume? Solids, Liquids or Gases? Explain your choices with respect to how their particles are being arranged. (2 marks)

    Solids have fixed volume. The force of attraction of the particles in the solids are very strong and they are closely packed until they can only vibrate in their fixed position.

    Quick Check 2:

    Many of Singapore homes as well as eateries and coffee shops are having cylinders in their premises known as LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas).

    Suggest why large amounts of butane gas, used for cooking, are stored in liquid in cylinders. (1 mark)

    When a gas is being compressed, the particles will be closer and thus form liquid under a high pressure. As we can see, a large amount of petroleum gas compressed into a cylinder is definitely saving the spaces and easier to be used.

    Reply

    sean Reply:

    Hi Kerk Yan Juin,

    Good attempt.

    Quick Check 1:

    Solids indeed have fixed volume and i agree with your explanations.

    But what about Liquids? Do they have fixed volume? Think about it?

    Quick Check 2:

    Well Done. Space saving to pack more in the cylinder is indeed the explanation for it.

    Keep Learning,

    To Your Academic Success in Chemistry,
    Sean Chua
    Master Trainer & Author

    Reply

    Kerk Yan Juin Reply:

    thanks :)

    Reply

  2. nwagbogun jennifer
    February 21, 2010 | 3:50 pm

    [1] liquid have fixed volumes because they cannot move about their fixed points and are not compressible [2] butane is stored in cylinders so that their will not be any oulet for gas to move out becuase they move randomly

    Reply

    sean Reply:

    Hi Jennifer,

    Good Attempt.

    I agree with your answer for Quick Check 1.

    Refer to above answer for Quick Check 2.

    Keep Learning,

    To Your Academic Success in Chemistry,
    Sean Chua
    Master Trainer & Author

    Reply

  3. Ogbuokiri Chinonso
    June 26, 2012 | 6:40 pm

    Butane gas is stored in cylinder, (1)Because it is volatile, (2) Because it can b compressed, being a gas, when compressed, it liquefies

    Reply

  4. Ogbuokiri Chinonso
    June 26, 2012 | 7:08 pm

    Solids have fixed volume while Gases and Liquids assume the volume of the container. Particles of solids closely packed together and only vibrate, those of liquids slide over another and are relatively apart. Gases are relatively widely apart move about.

    Reply

  5. Karima
    November 5, 2012 | 1:50 pm

    Hello sir,
    i know the answer of quick check 1…but still confused for quick check 2…can you help me out?

    Reply

  6. virtuous
    June 2, 2013 | 10:20 pm

    Solids have fixed bcos the force between its molecules is strong attracting them together.gas n liquid have no fixed volume bcos the fierce of attraction in the liquids is less compared to the solids and in the gases,it is low.another factor is the flow of any of the states of matter.liquid n gases can flow unlike the solids that cannot so the volume of liquid n gases isn’t fixed

    Butane is in a form of a gas but turns liquid under high temperature.it also doesn’t leave ashes after it has been used.it has to be kept in a cylinder so the particle are made compressed making much faster n easier to use.

    Reply

    sean Reply:

    Good to see your answers. They all look good except:

    “Butane is in a form of a gas but turns liquid under high temperature”

    Do you mean “Butane is in a form of a gas but turns liquid under high PRESSURE”? i.e. we liquefied it?

    Cheers!
    Sean Chua

    Reply

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